In a publication from the Educational Resources Informational Center (ERIC) on a research synthesis conducted by Cooper and Sweller, it examined the effects of summer vacation on standardized achievement test scores. From the study it was found that "Summer learning loss caused children's test scores to be at least one month lower when they returned to school in fall than when the students left in the spring."
More specifically, the meta-analysis found differences in the effect of summer vacation on different skill areas. According to the report, "Summer loss was more pronounced for math facts and spelling than for other tested skill areas. The explanation of this result was based on the observation that both math computation and spelling skills involve the acquisition of factual and procedural knowledge, whereas other skill areas, especially math concepts, problem solving, and reading comprehension, are conceptually based. Findings in cognitive psychology suggest that without practice, facts and procedural skills are most susceptible to forgetting."
In another research summary by the Center for Summer Learning, a 1996 study by H. Cooper found that on average, "a student will lose 2.6 months of grade equivalency in mathematical computational skills over the summer month."
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